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2. THE ROMAN WORLD IN The political world, THE SECOND CENTURY more world in which Ptolemy lived. C. The Greek chaos and the wars between Alexander's successors had been finally ended by Roman power. That new world was very imperfect in many ways Let us consider a but, for the first little time in many 38 end and was a modicum second century was empire; it was de- centuries, there peace. The of the golden age of the Roman of international order, law the closely the PTOLEMY AND HIS TIME cidedly the golden age of Roman science, but the best of Roman science was really Greek.

39 ANCIENT SCIENCE AND MODERN CIVILIZATION Athens (which Hadrian loved) and Greek culture. Marcus Aurelius wrote his famous Meditations in Greek. In spite of the prestige attained by such writers as Lucretius, Cicero, Virgil and Seneca, and of the scientific books Athene, the city of written in Latin by Vitruvius, Celsus, Frontinus and Pliny, the language of science was still predominantly Greek. It is true that the two greatest scientists of the age were born in the Orient, Ptolemy in Egypt and Galen in the province of Asia, and neither of them would have been able to write in Latin, even if they had wished to do so.

This particular system of projection had very remarkable and useful properties, of which Ptolemy was aware though he did jection. 15 The taking-up, orthogonal projection Aufnahme, is explained in the also sundial), Analemma (meaning and the stereographic in the Plani- Greek but preserved in Latin translations from the Arabic. Latest editions, by J. L. Heiberg, in the Ptolemaei Opera (2, 187-223, 225-59, 1907). The second was translated into German by }. Drecker (Isis 9, 255-78, 1927), who summarized the tradition of the sphaerium, both lost in Planisphaerium in his preface.

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