By Sergio Rui Silva
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Extra info for Advances in Sonar Technology (2009)
5 m. Although only one transducer is necessary for transmission and reception of the sonar echoes, the vertical arrangement enables interferometric height mapping. The horizontal set of transducers is for future use and will enable image enhancement through the use of micro-navigation techniques. Each individual set can be regulated for an angle suitable to illumination of the swath at the expected underwater surface depth. 75 cm. As appropriate for synthetic aperture operations, their real aperture is large (approximately 18 degrees), but have a strong front-to-back lobe attenuation ratio which is fundamental to minimize the reflections on the near water surface.
The main advantage of this algorithm is the ease of use within an iterative global contrast optimization auto-focus algorithm ([Kundur, D. et al (1996)]). The image formation is divided into two matrixes: a fixed matrix obtained from the sonar geometrical model and navigation data (corresponds to the use of a model matching algorithm, such as the explicit matched filtering); and a matrix of complex adjustable weights that is driven by the auto-focus algorithm. This is valid under the assumption that the image formation matrix is correct at pixel level and the remaining errors are at phase level (so that the complex weight matrix can correct them).
Cutrona, L. J. (1975), “Comparison of sonar system performance achievable using syntheticaperture techniques with the performance achievable by more conventional means”, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Volume 58, Issue 2, August 1975, pp. 336-348. Douglas, B. ; Lee, H. (1993) “Synthetic-aperture Sonar Imaging with Multiple-element Receiver Array”, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol. 5, pp. 445-448, April 1993. ; Atkins, P. ; Collins, T.