By Elizabeth Burton, Mike Jenks, Katie Williams
Reaching Sustainable city shape represents a huge improve within the sustainable improvement debate. It provides examine which defines components of sustainable city shape - density, measurement, configuration, exact layout and caliber - from macro to micro scale. Case experiences from Europe, the us and Australia are used to demonstrate solid perform in the fields of making plans, city layout and structure.
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Additional resources for Achieving Sustainable Urban Form
First, the UK planning system is highly effective in stopping development: it is much less effective in facilitating it. Comparative research on property markets in Europe (Williams and Wood 1994) underlines the lack of ‘positive planning’. There are serious weaknesses in anticipating needs and allocating sufficient land for these to be met, in the assembling and acquisition of land (especially in inner cities) and integrating the planning of infrastructure with new development. Powers exist for such important planning actions, but they are underused since there is insufﬁcient relationship between the (public) planning process and the (largely private) development process.
Planning theories (along with related theories on management, government, and other ﬁelds of human interaction) have often been based on abstract models based on notions of rationality, defined in normative terms. There are difﬁculties with the concept of rationality. Some of these stem from the fact that planning operates within an economic system that has a ‘market rationality’ which can differ from, and conflict with, the rationality which is espoused in some planning theories. But the crucial issue is that the concept of rationality cannot be divorced from objectives, ambitions and interests – as well as place and time.
The Human Rights Convention also focuses attention on the separation of powers since it provides for the right to appeal to an independent body against actions of government. While there is a limited right of appeal to the courts in the UK (which are independent) most appeals are heard by the government or its representatives. Changes to the planning system have already been made to meet the requirements of the Convention – and others will no doubt follow. Above all, in comparing planning systems, there are fundamental differences in the philosophy that underpins them.